INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
Author: PALAK JAIN
What is Biotechnology?
As the name suggests biotechnology comprises two words i.e. Bio which means life and Technology which means the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry. Together they form an ideal term Biotechnology which is any technological application that makes use of biological systems, living organisms, and its components to create products and other technological systems to advance the human condition. The term was coined in 1919 by a great Hungarian agricultural engineer Károly Ereky. He is also known as 'The Father of Biotechnology'.
What is Environmental Biotechnology?
Environmental biotechnology is an approach where the scientific and engineering knowledge is combined and applied with the involvement of microorganisms to avert contamination of the environment. It is achieved through biotreatment of solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes, bioremediation of polluted nature, and biomonitoring of environment and treatment procedures.
Pros and Cons of Environmental Biotechnology
|1. Environment Biotechnology is an answer to the world’s growing requirement of food by providing more feasible techniques for farming.||1. Experiments on Animals harm them and even though if the tests are done to protect the species in the future they are still suffering in present.|
|2. It decreases the environmental consequences like greenhouse gases, etc. that are the results of agricultural and various other activities.||2. While experimenting there are always some risks that come handy with the results. Here, if we talk about nature and biodiversity; while performing any test, even though it is for good, there are a huge amount of risks predicted.|
|3. It benefits nature, for instance, Conservation Tillage is a technique developed by the Environmental biotechnologists that reduced the amount of carbon dioxide gas in the air to a great extent.||3. Environmental Biotechnology is often questioned if it may exploit the lives of forest tribal people.|
Importance of Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is defined as the energy resources that can be generated naturally and frequently in the environment and can be used for the needs of humans. Some of the examples of renewable energy are wind, sunlight, geothermal heat, and many more. They generally do not contaminate the environment and helps in maintaining sustainability.
Environmental Biotechnology plays a major role in producing environment-friendly resources like Bioenergy and Biofuels.
Scope of Environmental Biotechnology
Usually, private companies hire environmental biotechnologists for providing bioremediation facilities. Other job opportunities include working as an environmental consultant or a researcher in biofuel companies. Government sectors are also available for the ones who are highly qualified.
Vital Fields in Environmental Biotechnology are-
There are various sectors where one can work as an Environmental Biotechnologist. Some are mentioned below.
Biofuels are those fuels that are produced from natural components. These are environment-friendly and are organic. This sector is earning a great deal of significance because of the awareness of growing pollution and swift changes in the geographical weather. It is a growing sector in abroad. Graduates and master graduates of environmental biologists, agricultural engineers, and scientists in the field of biochemistry, this sector is available for all of them.
Bioremediation is the latest technique of cleansing the polluted areas with the involvement of microorganisms. This sector comprises a research-based work where the biotechnologists have to perform various experiments to test various combinations of microbes and bacteria.
Agricultural Biotechnology- Agricultural Biotechnology in Environmental Biotechnology is a field that mainly focuses on fieldwork on farms. Biotechnologists in this field aspire to research and experiment with the crops through genetic manipulation to make them immune to diseases, insects, harsh climatic conditions, and so on. This is a vast sector in which every country requires the professionals to experiment on crops and develop genetically altered crops for a great yield. 
Environmental Biotechnology is a vast field of study that plays a major role in the growth of the nation. It helps in cleaning up the environment and producing remedies to prevent it from any further contamination. Various innovations are observed in Environmental Biotechnology and future improvements guarantee to broaden its scope. Some of the new methods now utilize genetically modified life forms to manage scientific tasks. The bioinformatics put together information that further furnishes data for the microbial information to assist bioremediation. Nanotechnological based remediation has likewise ended up being valuable. Biotechnology can make further significant commitments for the security and remediation of the contaminants in nature.
 Ivanov, V. and Hung, Y., 2010. Applications of Environmental Biotechnology. Environmental Biotechnology, [online] pp.1-17.
 Environmental <br />Biotechnology. 2020. Advantages And Disadvantages. [online]
 Fulekar, M., 2010. Environmental Biotechnology. Boca Raton [etc.]: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group.
Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=l3LRBQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=environmental+biotechnology&ots=6bDv0hBd3Y&sig=DUUD0hIOd2UxDK_5_NZBmOomM6w&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
 Ray, T., 2020. Career Scopes In Environmental Biotechnology | Applications Of Biotech In Renewable Energy. [online]