AN INTRODUCTION TO CARDIAC TISSUE ENGINEERING
Author: Mridula Vats
Heart failure is the favored reason behind death in industrial countries. myocardial infarct usually results in fibrotic scar formation and for good impaired internal organ function as a result of, when a huge cell loss thanks to ischemia, the heart muscle tissue lacks the intrinsic regenerative capability. In end-stage heart failure, heart transplantation is the last treatment option with good long-term benefits. Owing to the lack of organ donors and conditions associated with immune suppressive treatments, however, scientists and surgeons are continuously trying to find new strategies to regenerate the injured heart tissue. In general, scaffold materials such as gelatin, collagen, alginate, or synthetic polymers and cardiac cells are used. The problem is that adult heart muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, cannot divide to replace abraded cells. Thus, despite a restricted population of resident cardiac stem cells, the heart cannot repair itself by any native processes. Instead, scar tissue develops over the damaged part of myocardium. Such scar tissue keeps the organ intact but it cannot contract. The perfect clinical intervention would either avoid such scar formation or just replace the scar tissue with functioning cardiac muscle tissue. In the first approach to such therapy, investigators used injections of new cells into damaged areas of cardiac tissue.