Thursday, 2 December 2021

BCA-312 Artificial Intelligence - End Term Examination Paper - May-June 2018 #ipumusings #ggsipu #bcapapers

BCA-312 Artificial Intelligence - End Term Examination Paper - May-June 2018 

END TERM EXAMINATION [BCA] MAY Jun 2018 Paper Code: BCA312 _ _ Subject: Artificial Intelligence Time: 3 Hours  Maximum Marks: 75  Note: Attempt five questions in all including Q.no.1 which is compulsory.  Select one question from each unit. Q1 Write short notes [Any five]			(5x5=25) (a) Heuristic Approach (b) Task domain (c) Expert System (d) Hill Climbing (e) Role Learning (f) Robotic Architecture (g) DFS (Depth First Search)  Unit I Q2(a) What is the importance of Artificial Intelligence? Describe it. (6.5) (b) Discuss issues in design of search program. (5)  Q3: (a) Explain the various categories of Production System. (6) (b) What are the elements of AI? Discuss various Application areas of AI.(6.5)  UNITII Q4: What are the qualities of a good Knowledge Representation System?(6)  (b) What is predicate logic? How Knowledge Representation can be achieved using predicate logic? lllustrale. (6.5)  Q5 (a) Differentiate between Inheritable Knowledge & Infrential Knowledge.(6)  (b) Describe mapping between facts a» representation. (6.5)  UNIT III Q6: (a) Describe Natural Language Processing. Explain various types of NLP techniques. (6)  (b) What is learning? Explain how Ieaming is helpful for Al? (6.5)  Q7 (a) Comparison between Syntactic Processing & Semantic Processing (6.5) (b) Explain discourse & pragmatic processing. (6)  UNIT IV Q8 Why LISP is considered to be appropriate language for AI technique? Write a LISP program to print factorial of a given number. (12.5)  Q9: What is an Expert System? What are the characteristics of a good Expert System? Explain MYCIN expert system. (12.5)

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the ability of a computer or a robot controlled by a computer to do tasks that are usually done by humans because they require human intelligence and discernment. According to the current system of classification, there are four primary AI types: reactive, limited memory, theory of mind, and self-aware.

The syllabus covers the following topics:
1. Overview of A.I, Heuristic search techniques
2. Knowledge representation, Predicate Logic
3. Natural language processing and Learning Systems
4. Expert Systems and LISP & other AI programming languages.

Textbook: E. Rich and K. Knight, "Artificial intelligence", TMH, 2nd ed.

Here is End Term Examination Paper (May-June 2018)

Tuesday, 16 November 2021

Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications of Cyclic Distillation Process #chemistry #distillation #ipumusings

Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications of Cyclic Distillation Process

Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications of Cyclic Distillation Process #chemistry #distillation #ipumusings


Author: Esha Chatterjee

Abstract

Process Intensification (PI) in distillation columns, in the case of the cyclic mode of operation, has significant advantages, in terms of increased mass transfer efficiency and reduced costs of operations, over the classical process along with a few limitations and challenges. This article aims to scrutinize the characteristics of cyclic distillation and examine its range of application in modern mass transfer technologies.

The mathematical models which employ theoretical stages while reflecting upon the hydrodynamic flow regime in a cyclic distillation column facilitate the discernment of process intensification in the distillation operation and make accessible the suitable equipment to design the distillation columns for controlled periodic operation. [¹]

Friday, 12 November 2021

ARCHAEOMETALLURGY: IN PURSUIT OF ABYSS #chemistry #metallurgy #ipumusings #eduvictors

ARCHAEOMETALLURGY: IN PURSUIT OF ABYSS

ARCHAEOMETALLURGY: IN PURSUIT OF ABYSS #chemistry #metallurgy #ipumusings #eduvictors


Author: Anushka Singh

Abstract

Archaeometallurgy is a carefully embedded filigree of a gallimaufry of archaeology and metallurgy. The range of raw materials that humans use for food, construction, valuables, transportation, and other purposes is enormous and perplexing. The clink of metals in the numerous battles fought, documented and undocumented, echo in the chaos demarcating today. Buried in the depths of the earth since times unmemorable, archaeological metal artefacts undergo changes that alter the entire structure of the metal and alloys. In essence, archaeometallurgy deals with all aspects of metal starting right from its production and distribution to its usage. 

Tuesday, 9 November 2021

What is Cyclic Distillation? #chemistry #distillation #ipumusings #chemicalengineering

What is Cyclic Distillation?

What is Cyclic Distillation? #chemistry #distillation #ipumusings #chemicalengineering


Author: Esha Chatterjee

Abstract: 

The conventional distillation process can be highly energy consuming with limited separation of components. To increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the overall process, certain Process Identification techniques can be used. One such technique is cyclic distillation. This article aims to have a brief overview of cyclic distillation and its principles of operation.

Before we answer what is cyclic distillation let us first take a look at distillation in general.

Distillation is a separation process in which a more volatile component is separated from a less volatile component in a mixture. The mixture is partially vapourized and the more volatile component forms the vapour. The vapours are then condensed separately. It should be noted that only a partial separation is obtained and there may be some parts of the lesser volatile component in the condensed vapours and some parts of the more volatile may still be present in the feed solution even after vapourisation. The distillation process typically takes place in a distillation column where a multistage contact between the vapour and liquid phases are established to achieve a larger degree of separation. (1)

Saturday, 6 November 2021

B-cells Activation Against HIV Cells #biotechnology #Biochemistry #ipumusings #HIV #BCells

B-cells Activation Against HIV Cells

B-cells Activation Against HIV Cells #biotechnology #Biochemistry #ipumusings #HIV #BCells


Author: Priyansh Anand

ABSTRACT

The entire world has been devoted in recent years to revealing the behaviour of infectious HIV-associated disorders. HIV has long been the most prevalent virus on the planet. It has resulted in detrimental flaws in our humoral arm of immunity. We need to know about B-cell activation in HIV-associated illnesses and the actions done against HIV cells in this case. Here, we will also evaluate the failure of B-cells responding to antigens at the chronic infection of HIV-1 but the CD4+ response may preserve the B-cell function and its releasement of antibodies towards any virus.


INTRODUCTION

Many mammalian species, which include humans, have B-cells or B-lymphocytes that mature withinside the bone marrow and specific membrane-certain antibodies (typically in birds, it is BURSA of FABRICIUS). It is split into antibody-secreting plasma cells and reminiscence cells after being uncovered to the antigen. B-lymphocytes are ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELLS as well (APCs) because it is the simplest cell kind able to generate antibody molecules.

Sunday, 31 October 2021

STEM CELL LINES - A WalkThrough #stemcells #biochemistry #biology #blastocyst #ipumusings #eduvictors

STEM CELL LINES - A WalkThrough

STEM CELL LINES - A WalkThrough #stemcells #biochemistry #biology #blastocyst #ipumusings #eduvictors

Author: Preity Yadav

The Stem Cell (SC) line is a set of stem cells that can be grown in the laboratory. They can be cultivated in vitro. An SC line starts with a sole cell or with a set of cells, and all occurring cells in the line are copies of the original cells. The SC lines are produced and kept in incubators at precise temperature and atmospheric conditions (37 degrees Celsius & 5% CO2). The culture conditions, like the cell growth medium and the surface on which the cells are grown, vary on a large scale depending on that precise stem cell line. 

Tuesday, 26 October 2021

MODERN CARBON CAPTURE TECHNOLOGIES (#carbon)(#chemistry)(#ipumusings)

MODERN CARBON CAPTURE TECHNOLOGIES

MORDERN CARBON CAPTURE TECHNOLOGIES (#carbon)(#chemistry)(#ipumusings)


Author: Harsh Pandey 

INTRODUCTION

The cost factor plays a very important role for a technology to be equipped in an industry. The same is the case with carbon capture technologies. The feasibility of these technologies is still questionable since the cost of capturing the carbon becomes a major issue along with the fact that the energy required for these technologies itself counter produces carbon indirectly.

It has been found that if the carbon dioxide is captured from the source itself the process becomes quite effective for large industries where the carbon production is quite high like the cement industries and some of the other fossil fuel-based industries like the hydrogen-producing plants.

Monday, 25 October 2021

Health Benefits/Risks of Dietary Supplements #health #dietsupplememts #biochemistry #foodtechnology #ipumusings

Health Benefits/Risks of Dietary Supplements

Health Benefits/Risks of Dietary Supplements #health #dietsupplememts #biochemistry #foodtechnology #ipumusings


Author: Manyata Gupta

INTRODUCTION

A dietary supplement is often defined as any vitamin, mineral, added chemical substance, herbal product, botanical, amino acids, or other ingestible products that are added to the diet to profit human health. Dietary supplements are used worldwide and represent a broad category of ingestible products that are distinguishable from conventional foods and medicines. In China, India and Japan, where plants, herbs, botanicals and animal extracts have a long history of use as traditional medicine, regulations are different but relatively stringent in terms of safety and side effects to humans. Dietary supplements come in a spread of forms, including tablets, drinks, gummies, capsules and powders Popular dietary supplements such as vitamins D and B12; minerals like calcium and iron; herbs such as echinacea and garlic; and products like glucosamine and fish oils. Additionally, to vitamins, dietary supplements can contain minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes, and lots of other ingredients.

Thursday, 21 October 2021

Classification Of Aerogels (#chemistry)(#ipumusings)(#aerogels)

Classification Of Aerogels

Classification Of Aerogels (#chemistry)(#ipumusings)(#aerogels)


Author: Amit Prajapati

Abstract 

Aerogels can be classified as organic and inorganic based on the primary material used in their formation. Carbon aerogels have delved into the field of energy as efficient energy-containing material with a surface area beyond 2000 m²/g. Aerogel’s application expands beyond the field of energy and is used as a source for the separation of oil-water dispersion. They can be a potential material for the separation of crude oil from water during oil spills which not only damages marine life but also causes economic loss. Each class of aerogel have their specific property which makes them suitable for particular field task such as organic aerogels are mostly applied in the energy sector and gas absorption whereas inorganic aerogels are used as thermal insulators, in aerospace missions and natural gas plants.

Tuesday, 19 October 2021

CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE – AN OVERVIEW (#carbon)(#chemistry)(#environment)(#ipumusings)

CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE 

– AN OVERVIEW

CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE – AN OVERVIEW (#carbon)(#chemistry)(#environment)(#ipumusings)


Author:Harsh Pandey


“Today, we are announcing a 1billion dollar “Climate innovation fund” to accelerate the development of carbon reduction and removal technology”

                                                Satya Nadella, CEO, Microsoft.


Major government institutions worldwide, tech giants like Microsoft, mass oil producers like ExxonMobil, visionaries like Elon Musk, Airlines like United airlines, and several other institutions and organizations are looking forward into the scientific research and conclusions which are clear that the world now faces an urgent carbon problem. The carbon in our atmosphere has created   gas- traps causing escalation of heat in the environment and is changing the world’s climate drastically as compared to the previous centuries. Already, the planet’s temperature has notably risen. If we don’t limit the carbon emissions, and temperatures continue to climb, the results will be catastrophic.