Wednesday, 4 November 2020

Food Packaging - Technology Used In Food Biotechnology (#foodpackaging)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#foodbiotechnology)

Food Packaging - Technology Used In Food Biotechnology 

Food Packaging - Technology Used In Food Biotechnology (#foodpackaging)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#foodbiotechnology)


INTRODUCTION:

Packaging can be defined as the way to protect our food that contains essential nutritional values in such a way that the environmental impact is least. The primary role of the food packaging is to deliver a food that is protected from the outer environment and prevent damage from abrasion, nutritional values written on it and food safety is prior.

Food packaging technology is mainly for ensuring safer delivery of products to the consumers at a minimal cost. It ensures the protection of materials by means of containers designed to isolate the contents to some known degree from put side influences.


ABSTRACT:
The packaging institute international(PII) defines packaging as the enclosure of products, items in a wrapped pouch or other enclosed things for performing the following function:

✔ Containment
✔ Protection
✔ Preservation
✔ Communication
✔ Utility
✔ Performance

On the basis of the cost beneficiary, there are three levels of packaging:
👉 Primary packaging
👉 Secondary packaging
👉 Tertiary packaging

Food Packaging - Technology Used In Food Biotechnology (#foodpackaging)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#foodbiotechnology)


Packaging plays an important role in maintaining or deteriorating the shelf life of the product. It is observed that packaging decreases the shelf life of the product, it turns out to be a limiting factor.

There are various types of packaging that are practiced in the food industry which involve various food packaging materials:

  • PAPER: paper packaging is good for dry foods in which there is not any water content

  • PAPER BOARD: it is thicker than paper which consists multiple layers and hence is more durable than the paper

  • GLASS: it has good barrier properties , it maintains freshness of the product for much time , it can also withstand high temperature.

  • PLASTIC: these can be used to manufacture retortable packages with high melting point or thermosealable packages with low melting point.

  • METALS: it is the most versatile form of all the packaging materials, they provide excellent protection to the packaged food from the damage, they are vacuum sealed for the purpose of food packaging.
Food Packaging - Technology Used In Food Biotechnology (#foodpackaging)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#foodbiotechnology)


Now we will discuss the application of these materials in various food packaging techniques:

TYPES OF PACKAGING

Food Packaging - Technology Used In Food Biotechnology (#foodpackaging)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#foodbiotechnology)




1. ASCEPTIC PACKAGING:
Process in which a food product , such as ultra high temperature milk and its package is sterilized separately and then sealed  It increase shelf life of the food product

2. VACUUM PACKAGING:
In this type of packaging the air is taken out of the food packaged. For ex: in meats and chicken packaging.

3.MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING:
In this type of packaging the air is replaced with a mixture of gases in the food packaged prior to sealing it. Various gases like carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen are introduced in the food packaged.


Now , with the evolution and development certain packaging methods have to be developed which can be used in future as a n alternative to these methods and cause less damage to the environment and restrain the more nutritional values in the packages food. The following packaging methods will not only protect our food from contamination, they will also change the means of food operations:

  • EDIBLE PACKAGING: In this type of packaging , the packaging material can also be eaten along with the food product.

  • MICRO PACKAGING: Using nanotechnology , an ultra micro thin layer is coated on the food product which would solely water and soluble polymer.

  • SMART PACKAGING:This type of packaging would contain sensors that would really tell the consumers whether the food they are consuming is consumable or not.

  • WATER SOLUBLE PACKAGING: It would contain food packaging pouches that would dissolve in water and the food can be consumed, further some advancements are to be made only primary packaging is feasible now, secondary packaging protecting food from contamination is still to be practiced.

Now here some of the factors which affect or get affected by the food packaging technology are discussed below:

✔ Chemical processes such as oxidation, enzyme activity
✔ Microbiological processes
✔ Physical damage
✔ Insect damage
✔ Moisture changes
✔ Flavor scalping

❏ OXIDATION: various food products react with oxygen affecting the color, flavor and changing more physical properties. Now packaging plays a major role here for increasing the shelf life of the food product by controlled level of oxygen in the food packaged.

❏ MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESSES: There are always some bacteria are present that cause harm to the food product and the population of these food harming pathogens increases when favourable conditions are there. So shelf life of the food product deceases and packaging is done in such a manner that shelf life increases. Hence , frozen packaging becomes a good option.

❏ PHYSICAL DAMAGE: particularly while storing , delivering, transporting, there are certain vibrations which causes damage to the food packaging.

❏ INSECT DAMAGE: infestation can be very unpleasant to the consumers and these insects cause damage to the food packaging.

❏ MOISTURE CHANGES: hygroscopic goods require protection from moisture hence a special kind of packaging Is required by maintaining the correct temperature and humidity while packaging.

❏ SCALPING: When a chemical compound present in the food has higher affinity for the packaging material then the packaging will get destroyed, this is known as scalping. This may result in the loss of important nutritional values of the food.

Role of mass transfer in packaging:
Absorption of food material and permeation of volatile compounds in food material is all related to mass transfer. In last few years , there has been a huge replacement from paper, cloth packaging to plastic packaging. Plastic has been widely used for such purposes but plastics allow molecular transfer of materials of low molecular weight due to their peculiar morphology. Substances such as water vapor, food aroma, odors are exchanged within the food system. So food packaging is done in such a way that there is minimum loss of nutrients and other essential minerals due to mass transfer.

CITATIONS:


Food Packaging Technology by RICHARD COLES, DEREK McDOWELL and MARK J.KIRWAN , 2003

About the Author:
Manan Batra, doing BTech in Biochemical Engineering at University School of Chemical Technology, GGSIP University, Dwarka, Delhi. His main interests are in food processing and biofuels. 


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