Tuesday, 14 July 2020

Enzyme Catalysis -A Brief Introduction (#ipumusings)(#biochemistry)(#enzymecatalysis)

Enzyme Catalysis -A Brief Introduction

Enzyme Catalysis -A Brief Introduction (#ipumusings)(#biochemistry)(#enzymcatalysis)

Author: Mankaran Singh

Many biological processes have a slow rate of reaction or might be going through a longer path in which they might consume more energy. So we have special biocatalysts, called enzymes. Enzymes are biomolecules of protein with high relative molecular mass generally derived from living organisms with their catalytic properties; they take these slow reaction processing in a way that the rate of the reaction alters as per the need of the process by lowering the activation energy. They ensure that the reaction processing is done in a compatible manner with life. The substrate or the reactants get bound to the enzyme's special sites and process them to new products by breaking the bonds between them. For example, yeast produces enzyme zymase which converts glucose to ethanol and releases carbon dioxide and energy as byproducts. 

Saturday, 11 July 2020

Nanotechnology That Will Actually Make Your Life Better (#ipumusings)(#biotechnology)(#nanotechnology)

Nanotechnology That Will Actually Make Your Life Better. 

Nanotechnology is futuristic. Here the article by Sanjana talks about Nanotechnology and how it is shaping the future. 

Nanotechnology That Will Actually Make Your Life Better (#ipumusings)(#biotechnology)(#nanotechnology)

What is nanotechnology?

The world is shrinking and relatively unexplored beyond what a human eye can perceive.  Nanotechnology is any technology on the nanoscale with applications in the real world. It is the manipulation and manufacture of matter on the atomic, molecular and supramolecular level. The nanoscale is a measure in nanometers which is the billionth part of a meter where Nanos, the Greek word means “dwarf”. [1]

Wednesday, 8 July 2020

The A - Z of BIOPOLYMERS (#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)


A brief introduction about polymers, history and uses.

The A - Z of BIOPOLYMERS (#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)


Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms. Polymers are long molecules which are made by joining lots of smaller molecules in a single chain. It is a biodegradable chemical compound which is regarded as the most organic compound. The name Biopolymer indicates that it is a biodegradable polymer. Cellulose, chitin and starch, proteins and peptides, DNA and RNA are examples of biopolymers, in which the monomeric units are sugars, amino acids, and nucleotides.
Biopolymers and their derivatives are varied, plentiful, abundant and important for life. They exhibit the property of a wonderful and increasingly important for various applications. Besides being available on a sustainable basis, biopolymers have many economic and environmental advantages. Biopolymers could also prove a boon for waste processing. For example, replacing polyethylene used in coated papers by a biopolymer could help eliminate plastic scraps occurring in compost.
Living matter is able to synthesize an overwhelming variety of polymers, which can be divided into proteins and poly(amino acids), polysaccharides such as cellulose, starch and xanthan, alginate, carrageenan, organic polyoxoesters such as poly (hydroxyalkanoic acids), poly (malic acid) and cutin.
The term biopolymer is most commonly used when referring to the use of the materials in some practical, non-food application. When starch is used to make disposable utensils it might be called a biopolymer, but not normally when it is in bread, or in the tissue of a plant.

Thursday, 11 June 2020

Biohazards: Understanding Biological Behaviour and Related Hazard and Biodefense Strategies (disinfection)(#ipumusings)(#biochemistry)

Biohazards: Understanding Biological Behaviour and Related Hazard and Biodefense Strategies (disinfection)

Biohazards: Understanding Biological Behaviour and Related Hazard and Biodefence Strategies (disinfection)(#ipumusings)(#biochemistry)

Author: Sweta Kumari

Introduction to Biohazards

Biological/infectious substances or naturally occurring bioengineered, synthesized components that pose a threat to the health of living organisms are referred to as a biohazard. Some examples are sewage, organic dust, wastewater, stinging insects, microbiological wastes,  human or monkey cell culture, transgenic animals or plants, airborne pathogens such as common cold, human blood and certain human body fluid that are capable of causing death,  disease, or other biological malfunction, deterioration of food, water,  equipment,  supplies, or material of any kind harmful alteration of the environment.

Some agents that cause biological hazard are certain bacteria that are harmful to humans (Pseudomonas, Salmonella, etc.), Fungi, viruses, protozoa, parasites, allergens, viroids & prions, rickettsiae.

Tuesday, 9 June 2020

Supercritical Fluids - An Overview (#ipumusings)(#chemicalenginnering)

Supercritical Fluids - An Overview

Supercritical Fluids - An Overview (#ipumusings)(#chemicalenginnering)
Author: Pragya Palak


The interplay of various thermodynamic states has bestowed us with many wonders. Supercritical fluids (SCF) are one of them. They represent a class of substances that exist as a single phase above their critical point i.e., above their critical temperature and pressure. It is common knowledge that the states of the matter are interchangeable. Vapor on being subjected to low temperature and high pressure can be converted into the liquid state. But along this process there comes a certain temperature, above which the gas cannot be further liquified, no matter the amount of pressure being applied. This temperature is called critical temperature and the pressure corresponding to it is called critical pressure. Thus the condition of temperature and pressure being above their critical state where no distinct liquid and gas phases exist, is termed as supercritical. Acetone, carbon dioxide, diethyl ether, propane, nitrous oxide, and water are some of the substances that show supercritical state.

Thursday, 4 June 2020

This Is How Tissue Engineering - A Brief Overview On Stem Cell Technology - Will Look Like In 10 Years Time.(#ipumusings)(#eduvictors)

This Is How Tissue Engineering - A Brief Overview On Stem Cell Technology Will Look Like In 10 Years Time.

This Is How Tissue Engineering - A Brief Overview Will Look Like In 10 Years Time.(#ipumusings)

Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field that combines the principles of engineering, life sciences, material, cells, etc to create a functional organ to replace damaged tissue/organs.

The approach was to fulfil the needs of the growing number of patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation due to the failure of organs and the limited number of donated organs available for such procedures. This need continues to grow internationally. The development of therapies for patients with severe chronic diseases affecting major organs such as the heart, kidney, and liver would vastly increase the potential impact of tissue-engineering technologies. Similarly, diabetes mellitus is now known as an exploding epidemic with more than 200 million patients worldwide. Patients with type 1 diabetes could be treated by transplantation of surrogate β cells or neo-islets. Osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases, chronic kidney diseases, severe burns, spinal cord injuries knee, bone disorders, and birth defects, as targets of regenerative medicine.

Sunday, 31 May 2020

Petroleum Industry: An Overview - What are its new challenges and opportunities? (#ipumusings)(#petroleum)(#chemistry)

Petroleum Industry:An Overview

New Challenges and Opportunities

Petroleum Industry: An Overview - What are its new challenges and opportunities? (#ipumusings)(#petroleum)(#chemistry)

Author: Dravya Malik


Petroleum is a fossil fuel which is formed when large quantities of organic matter are deposited as sediments. Petroleum is refined into various types of fuels which comprise the Petroleum Industry or the Oil and Gas Industry. Petroleum contains the following elements: carbon (93% – 97%), hydrogen (10% - 14%), nitrogen (0.1% - 2%), oxygen (01.% - 1.5%) and sulphur (0.5% - 6%) with a few trace metals. Hydrocarbons present in petroleum are mainly alkanes, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons. The petroleum industry is vast and its activities extend over all regions of the world.

Monday, 11 May 2020

Chapter 2: Introduction to PHP Programming and PHP Variables (Questions and Answers)(#ipumusings)(#PHPTutorials)

Chapter 2: Introduction to PHP Programming and PHP Variables 

(Questions and Answers)

Chapter 2: Introduction to PHP Programming and PHP Variables (Questions and Answers)(#ipumusings)(#PHPTutorials)

Q1: What are the two ways PHP can be used?

   1. By using PHP templating engine which allows PHP code to output its content alongside HTML content.
   2. Use PHP in the Interactive Shell which is the most common way PHP scripts are executed on a server.

Q2: Give an example to show PHP is used in interactive mode.

1. Open command shell (in Windows) or Bash shell in Linux.
2. Go to bin folder where PHP is installed.
3. Run php -a. It opens PHP as an interactive shell. php> command prompt appears.
4. Type echo "Hello World". It displays the string.
5. Type exit to quit interactive shell.

Q3: Give an example to run a PHP script at the command prompt?

Friday, 24 April 2020

What is a Black Swan Event? (#Finance)(#ipumusings)(#bba)(#mba)

What is a Black Swan Event?

What is a Black Swan Event? (#Finance)(#ipumusings)(#bba)(#mba)

Pickup the correct option from the following Multiple Choice Based Question (MCQ)

Question: The term 'Black Swan Event', often seen in the news, is related to

(a) the mass migration of black swan birds from the Arctic region to the Siberia.

(b) viral infections widespread that originated from birds affecting humans and other animals.

(c) an extremely rare unpredictable event that has severe consequences.

(d) a rare asteroid orbiting the Earth's orbit.

Correct answer is an option (c).

A black swan is an unpredictable event that is beyond what is normally expected of a situation and has potentially severe consequences. Black swan events are characterized by their extreme rarity and their severe impact. In general, this phrase is commonly used in the world of finance. It is an extremely negative event or occurrence that is nearly impossible to predict.

Thursday, 26 March 2020

Chapter 1: Introduction to PHP Programming Q & A (#ipumusings)(#php)

Chapter 1: Introduction to PHP Programming

Chapter 1: Introduction to PHP Programming Q & A (#ipumusings)(#php)

Questions & Answers

Q1: What does PHP stands for?

Answer: Hypertext Preprocessor
PHP is a server side scripting solution that empoweres developers to build dynamic HTML pages.

Q2: Who is the original creator of PHP?

Answer: Rasmus Lerdorf developed PHP around 1995.

Q3: Does PHP support object oriented programming?

Answer: Yes it supports the object-oriented programming (OOP) paradigm.