Monday, 5 April 2021

AN INTRODUCTION TO CARDIAC TISSUE ENGINEERING (#biochemistry)(#tissueengineering)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#heartcelltransplant)


Author: Mridula Vats

AN INTRODUCTION TO CARDIAC TISSUE ENGINEERING (#biochemistry)(#tissueengineering)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#heartcelltransplant)

Image Credits: Chadonihi, pixabay


Heart failure is the favored reason behind death in industrial countries. myocardial infarct usually results in fibrotic scar formation and for good impaired internal organ function as a result of, when a huge cell loss thanks to ischemia, the heart muscle tissue lacks the intrinsic regenerative capability. In end-stage heart failure, heart transplantation is the last treatment option with good long-term benefits. Owing to the lack of organ donors and conditions associated with immune suppressive treatments, however, scientists and surgeons are continuously trying to find new strategies to regenerate the injured heart tissue. In general, scaffold materials such as gelatin, collagen, alginate, or synthetic polymers and cardiac cells are used. The problem is that adult heart muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, cannot divide to replace abraded cells. Thus, despite a restricted population of resident cardiac stem cells, the heart cannot repair itself by any native processes. Instead, scar tissue develops over the damaged part of myocardium. Such scar tissue keeps the organ intact but it cannot contract. The perfect clinical intervention would either avoid such scar formation or just replace the scar tissue with functioning cardiac muscle tissue. In the first approach to such therapy, investigators used injections of new cells into damaged areas of cardiac tissue.

Wednesday, 24 March 2021

Common Chemical Compounds – Names and Formulas (#chemistry)(#biochemistry)(#ipumusings)

 Common Chemical Compounds – Names and Formulas 

(General Science)

Common Chemical Compounds – Names and Formulas (General Science)(#chemistry)(#compete4exams)

The list of all the important Names and Formulas of Common Chemical Compounds is given here: weblink

Tuesday, 23 March 2021

Good Laboratory Practices and Disinfection/Sterilisation (#labsafety)(#biosafety)(#biochemistry)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)

Good Laboratory Practices and Disinfection/Sterilisation

Good Laboratory Practices and Disinfection/Sterilisation (#labsafety)(#biosafety)(#biochemistry)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)

Credits: FotoshopTofs (pixabay)

Author: Sweta Kumari

Good Laboratory Practices

In order to avoid harm to human, animals and nature by human error or poor laboratory technique or misuse of laboratory equipment these are some standard good practices that we can keep in mind while handling infectious biological agents: 

Use of pipettes and pipetting aids

Pipetting by mouth is not good practice it must be prohibited. A discard container should be kept inside the biological safety cabinet not outside, so the risk of infection could be minimised. If the pipette is contaminated then, it should be kept in a suitable disinfectant for certain periods of time.

Infectious material should not be mixed.

Reducing the dispersal of infectious materials

There should be precautions to ensure that there is no aerosol creation therefore care should be taken when drying sputum samples. The workspace must be decontaminated with suitable disinfectant at the end of each work done.

Use of biological safety cabinet

Before using the cabinets, it is better to check that it is working properly. Paperwork should not be placed inside the biological safety cabinet. There should be a minimum crowd behind the operator. The fan in the cabinet should be open at least for five minutes before and after use.

Avoiding the infectious material to enter through the route of ingestion and direct contact

Large particles during the microbiological manipulation settle on the surface of the bench and also on the hand of the operator therefore disposal gloves should be worn. The worker should not touch their eye, nose and face. Food and drink should not store in a laboratory.

Care and use of the refrigerator and freezer, etc.

All the containers should be kept with proper labelling includes the scientific name of content, the date on which the container is stored and there should be the name of the individual too who stored it. If there is an unlabelled container that should be discarded after autoclave.

Use of centrifuges

Tubes or specimen containers should be securely capped for centrifugation. Buckets must be loaded in paired weight in order to balance correctly. Distilled water or alcohol (ethanol 70%) should be used to balance the empty buckets, after use bucket should be stored in an inverted position to drain off the balancing fluid used.

Avoiding injection of infection agents

If possible then glass wear should be replaced with plastic wear because there may be inoculation from the broken or chipped glass.

Good Laboratory Practices and Disinfection/Sterilisation (#labsafety)(#biosafety)(#biochemistry)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)

Disinfection: A process by which chemical or mixture of the chemical that kills the microorganisms not necessarily spores. This can be applied to an inanimate surface or object.

Sterilisation: A process by which all class or microorganisms and spores kills or removed.

Cleaning of laboratory materials

Cleaning refers to the removal of dirt, soil and organic matter that can shield microorganisms and may interfere when we apply decontaminants (disinfectants chemical germicides) for the killing of m Therefore precleaning is essential to achieve proper sterilisation and disinfection.

Chemical Germicides:

Commonly used class of germicides is listed below:

Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite - NaOCl)

Sodium dichloroisocyanurate(NaDCC)


Hydrogen peroxide and peracids

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2)

Iodine and iodophors



Quaternary ammonium compounds

Hydrogen peroxide and peracids

Phenolic compounds

Formaldehyde (HCHO)

Hand washing/hand - decontamination

While handling biohazardous material wear gloves and wash hands before leaving the laboratory after work. Use of germicidal based soap is recommended but usually, ordinary soap and water are also sufficient to decontaminate. If proper hand washing is not available use alcohol-based hand rubs.

Heat disinfection and sterilisation

A physical agent heat is most commonly used for decontamination of pathogenic organisms. Dry heat is used to process laboratory wear it is totally not corrosive at the temperature of 160 degrees Celsius or higher for two to four hours.


The quality of steam used is saturated steam under pressure. These are some following cycles:

1. 3 min holding time at 134 °C

2. 10 min holding time at 126 °C

3. 15 min holding time at 121 °C

4. 25 min holding time at 115 °C.


The operation should be assigned to the trained individual. There should be a regular inspection by qualified personnel to check the chamber, door seals and all gauges and controls. The operator must wear suitable gloves while opening the autoclave. If the drain screen filter of the chamber is available then it should be cleaned up daily. There are chances that the relief valves of the pressure cooker autoclave may block due to paper etc in load therefore care should be taken to ensure that this does not happen.


Laboratory biosafety manual. (2004). weblink

Handbook of Chemical Health and Safety (ACS Handbooks)

About The Author:

Sweta Kumari doing her graduation from the University School Of Chemical Technology, GGSIPU. She wants to pursue her research in bio-safety and environmental health.

👉See Also:

Biohazards: Understanding Biological Behaviour and Related Hazard and Biodefense Strategies

BioChemistry - Standard Genetic Code

Understanding Safety Colours and Signs Standards in India

Risk groups and Biosafety Levels - An Overview - What Every Biochemist Must Know!

Monday, 15 March 2021

UNDERSTANDING FOOD SAFETY (FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY) #biotechnology #foodsafety #ipumusings #biochemistry


UNDERSTANDING FOOD SAFETY (FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY) #biotechnology #foodsafety #ipumusings #biochemistry


Food is the basic requirement for humans, to which they cannot be denied. Food can become contaminated at any stage of processing, production, processing and storage. Germs can spread from unclean surfaces to food and hence contaminating the food and causing health problems to the food consumer and sometimes it can even be fatal. For the assurance of the protection of food from contaminants, we need to adopt some measures such as food safety.


To be concise, food safety can be termed as the preventive measures taken to protect the food from contaminating substances to give a contamination-free consumption to the food consumers. It relies on the joint efforts of everyone involved from food processing to food packaging to food storage that is involved in the food supply chain. A food is considered to be safe only when it has not lost any of its nutritional value, it is physically, chemically, microbiologically clean. 

Thursday, 11 March 2021

Construction and Working of Dynamic Pumps (#biochemistry)(#centrifugalpumps)(#physics)(#turbines)(#ipumusings)

Construction and Working of Dynamic Pumps

Construction and Working of Dynamic Pumps (#biochemistry)(#centrifugalpumps)(#physics)(#turbines)(#ipumusings)

Dynamic pumps are the pumps in which kinetic energy is increased by increasing the fluid velocity. The velocity decreases prior to exit, converting the kinetic energy into potential energy. There are three types of dynamic pump: 

  1. Centrifugal pumps, 
  2. Propeller and 
  3. Turbines.

Thursday, 25 February 2021

Dark Fermentation - The Best Bioprocess for Biohydrogen Production (#biochemistry)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#biohydrogen)

Dark Fermentation - The Best Bioprocess for Biohydrogen Production

Dark Fermentation - The Best Bioprocess for Biohydrogen Production (#biochemistry)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#biohydrogen)

Author: Pavitra Khurana

Hydrogen is one of the promising renewable, clean fuel for the future. The reason behind this claim is due to it's higher energy content(two times more) per kg as compared to gasoline, zero carbon emissions. There are many Thermochemical processes by which hydrogen can be produced but all of these are highly energy intensive and uses Fossil fuel as the primary source for its production, hence are not the solutions. Instead, the biological processes especially the Dark Fermentation method can become the game changer as it can use organic waste from various sources and convert it into Biohydrogen along with providing various industrially important by-products such as ethanol, acetic acid, butyric acid, etc.

Sunday, 21 February 2021

Role of Nanobiotechnology in Biopharmaceuticals (#biotechnology)(#nanotechnology)(#biochemistry)(#pharmacy)(#ipumusings)

Role of Nanobiotechnology in Biopharmaceuticals

Role of Nanobiotechnology in Biopharmaceuticals (#biotechnology)(#nanotechnology)(#biochemistry)(#pharmacy)(#ipumusings)


Nanomedicine with its capacity to perform at the nanoscale has extraordinary focal points over ordinary pharmaceuticals. The customary medications just rotate around the essential microscopic organisms that have been clinically affirmed. Nanomedicine can not exclusively be an aid for rising organizations and exploration offices yet in addition advantageous for the administration bodies to diminish the use of the medications.

Friday, 19 February 2021

KIDNEY TISSUE ENGINEERING (#biochemistry)(#tissueengineering)(#ipumusings)(#bioartificialglomerulus)


Author: Mridula Vats

KIDNEY TISSUE ENGINEERING (#biochemistry)(#tissueengineering)(#ipumusings)(#bioartificialglomerulus)


The alternatives to replace kidney functions in humans include dialysis and allotransplantation. Transplantation of human kidneys is limited by the availability of donors. During the past few decades, many different approaches have been applied to tissue engineering the kidney. The goals include the recapitulation of renal filtration, resorptive and secretory functions, replacement of endocrine and metabolic activities. Patients with chronic kidney disease with deteriorated renal function are treated by dialysis or undergo surgical intervention for renal transplantation to reduce the risk of mortality. Dialysis is the major treatment modality for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but it has some limitations in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost.

Keywords: Human kidney, Cell-based strategies, Organ based strategies, Development of the bioartificial glomerulus.

Wednesday, 17 February 2021

HRM Role and Occupational Health and Safety - BBA/MBA/LLB Study Notes (#HumanResources)#BBANotes #mbaNotes #OccupationalSafety #ipumusings

HRM Role and Occupational Health and Safety

Subject: Human Resource Management

HRM Role and Occupational Health and Safety - BBA/MBA/LLB Study Notes (#HumanResources)#BBANotes #mbaNotes #OccupationalSafety #ipumusings

On Sep 24, 2008, the sacked workers of Italian MNC, Graziano barged into the India Unit at Greater Noida (Uttar Pradesh) and the CEO was beaten to death. (Source: Times Of India)

In May 2009, workers at Mahindra’s Nashik plant protested over the suspension of a union leader. Although the strike was called off after 48 hours; however, it led to production loss of Rs 325 crore.

From 2014 to 2017, 8,004 such incidents occurred in Indian workplaces killing 6,368 employees. Most such incidents took place in Delhi, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. (Source: The Hindu)

Thousands of employees throughout the world lose their fingers, eyes, limbs, and their lives, every day due to occupational hazards, industry violence and accidents.