Tuesday, 22 June 2021

MCA/BTech - Data Science - Understanding Data Preparation (Questions and Answers) #ggsipu #mcanotes #datascience #ipumusings

 MCA/BTech - Data Science - Understanding Data Preparation (Questions and Answers)

MCA/BTech - Data Science - Understanding Data Preparation (Questions and Answers) #ggsipu #mcanotes #datascience #ipumusings

Q1: Why is there need to prepare data?

Answer: It is estimated that over 2.5 exabytes are created and collected by people and organisations each day. Here are the main reasons we need to prepare data are:

60% to 95% of the time is spent preparing the data. Some data preparation is needed for all mining tools.

The purpose of preparation is to transform data sets so that their information content is best exposed to the mining tool.

Error prediction rate should be lower (or the same) after the preparation as it was before.

Wednesday, 16 June 2021

Important Biochemical Words - Origins and Their Meanings (#biochemistry)(#biology)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)

Important Biochemical Words - Origins and Their Meanings

Important Biochemical Words - Origins and Their Meanings (#biochemistry)(#biology)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)

Acid (Latin) acidus-sour 

Acidosis (Latin) acidus-sour; osis-condition 

Albinism (Greek) albino-white 

Alkali (Arabic) al-qite-ashes of saltwort 

Allergy (Greek) alios-other; ergon-work 

Alloseric (Greek) allo-the other 

Amentia (Latin) amentis-mental deficiency 

Amnesia (Greek) a-not; mnesis-memory 

Amphipathic (Greek) amphi-both; pathos-feeling 

Amphiphilic (Greek) amphi-both; philic-love 

Anaerobe (Greek) a-not; aer-air; bios-life 

Anaplerotic (Greek) ana-up; plerotikos-to fill 

Androgen (Greek) aner-man; genesis-production 

Anemia (Greek) a-not; haima-blood 

Anorexia (Greek) a-not; orexis-appetite 

Anticoagulant anti (Greek}-against; coagulare (Latin}-to curdle 

Antimetabolite (Greek) anti-against; metabolechange 

Arteriosclerosis arteria (Latin}-artery; sclerosis (Greek) hardening. 

Arthritis (Greek) arthron-joint; itis-inflammation 

Atherosclerosis (Greek) athere-porridge; sclerosishardening 

Beri-beri (Sinhalese}- cannot (said twice) 

Biochemistry (Greek) bios-life; chymos-juice 

Biology (Greek) bios-life; logos-discourse 

Bovine (Latin) bovinus-pertaining to cow or ox 

Calorie (Latin) calor-heat Cancer (Latin) crab 

Carbohydrate carbo (Latin}-coal; hydor (Greek) water 

Caries (Latin)-decay 

Casein (Latin) caseus-cheese 

Catabolism (Greek) kata-down; ballein-to throw 

Catalysis (Greek) kata-down; lysis-degradation 

Cathepsin (Greek) to digest 

Cephalins (Greek) kephale-head 

Cheilitis (Greek) cheilos-lip; itis-inflammation 

Cheilosis (Greek) cheilos-lip; osis-condition 

Chirality (Greek) cheir-hand 

Chlorophyll (Greek) chloros-pale green; phyllonleaf 

Cholelithiasis (Greek) chole-bile; lithos-stone; asis - condition 

Cholesterol (Greek) chole-bile; sterol-solid alcohol 

Chromatography (Greek) chroma-colour; graphein-to write 

Chromosome (Greek) chroma-colour; soma-body 

Chyle (Greek) chylos-juice 

Chyluria (Greek) chylos-juice; auron-urine 

Chyme (Greek) chymos-juice 

Cirrhosis (Greek) kirrhos-orange-tawny; osis-condition 

Cis (Latin) same side 

Coagulation (Greek) coagulare-to curdle 

Collagen (Greek) kolla-glue; genesthai-to be produced 

Colloid (Greek) kolla-glue; eidos-form 

Consanguinity (Latin) con-with; sanguis-blood 

Creatine (Greek) kreas-flesh Cristae (Latin) crests 

Cutaneous (Latin) cutis-skin 

Cytology (Greek) kytos-cell; logos-discourse 

Cytoplasm (Greek) kytos-cell; plassein-to mould 

Dermatitis (Greek) derma-skin; itis-inflammation 

Diabetes mellitus (Greek) diabetes-running through (or a siphon); mellitus-sweet 

Eicosanoids (Greek) eikosi-twenty 

Embolism (Greek) embolos-to plug 

Emphysema (Greek) emphysan-to inflate 

Enkephalin (Greek) in the brain 

Enthalpy (Greek) to warm within 

Entropy (Greek) in turning 

Enzyme (Greek) in yeast 

Erythrocyte (Greek) erythros-red; kytos-cell 

Eukaryotes (Greek) eu-true; karyon-nucleus 

Ferrous (Latin) ferrum-iron 

Folate (Latin) folium-leaf 

Galactose (Greek) gala-milk 

Gastritis (Greek) gaster-belly; itis-inflammation 

Gene (Greek) genesis-descent 

Genome (Greek) genos-birth 

Globin (Latin) globus-ball 

Globulin (Latin) globulus-little ball 

Glossitis (Greek) glossa-tongue; itis-inflammation 

Glycolysis (Greek) glycos-sweet; lysis-dissolution 

Goitre (Latin) gultur-throat 

Gonadotrophin (Greek) gona-generation; trophe-nourishment 

Haemoglobin haima (Greek)-blood; globus (Latin)ball 

Hepatitis (Greek) hepar-liver; itis-inflammation 

Hormone (Greek) hormain-to excite 

Hydrophilic (Greek) hydro-water; philic-living 

Hydrophobic (Greek) hydro-water; phobic-hating 

Hyperglycemia (Greek) hyper-above; glycos-sweet; haima-blood 

Hypertonic (Greek) hyper-above; tonos-tension 

Hypoglycemia (Greek) hypo-below; glycos-sweet;haima-blood 

Hypotonic (Greek) hypo-below; tonos-tension 

Icterus (Greek) ikteros-jaundice 

Immunity (Latin) immunis-exempt from public burden 

Inflammation (Latin) inflammare-to set on fire 

In situ (Latin) in the correct position 

In vitro (Latin) in a test tube 

In vivo (Latin) in the living tissue 

Isomerism (Greek) iso-equal; mesos-part 

Isotonic (Greek) iso-equal; tonos-tension 

Isotope (Greek) iso-equal; topos-place 

Jaundice (French) jaune-yellow 

Keratin (Greek) keras-horn 

Kwashiorkor (Ga-African) sickness of the deposed child 

Lactalbumin (Greek) lac-milk; albumin-white 

Lecithin (Greek) lekithos-egg yolk 

Lipids (Greek) lipos-fat 

Lactosuria lac (Latin)-milk; ovron (Greek)-urine 

Leukocytes (Geek) leukos-white; kytos-cell 

Leukoderma (Greek) leukos-white; derma-skin 

Ligase (Greek) ligate-to bind 

Malaria (Italian) bad air 

Malnutrition (Latin) malus-bad; nutrire-nourishment 

Marasmus (Greek) to waste 

Melanin (Greek) melan-black 

Menopause (Greek) men-month; pausis-stopping 

Metabolism (Greek) metabole-change 

Mitochondria (Greek) mitos-thread; chondros - granule 

Mitosis (Greek) mitos-thread; osis-condition 

Monosaccharide (Greek)-mono-one; saccharin - sugar 

Myeloma (Greek) myelos-marrow; oma-tumor 

Nephritis (Greek) nephros-kidney; itis-inflammation 

Neurosis (Greek) neuron-nerve; osis-condition 

Oedema or edema (Greek) oidema-swelling 

Oligosaccharides (Greek) oligo-few; saccharon-sugar 

Osmosis (Greek)-push 

Osteomalacia (Greek) osteon-bone; malakia-softness 

Oxyntic (Greek) oxynein-to make acid 

Oxytocin (Greek)-rapid birth 

Palindrome (Greek)-to run back again 

Pantothenic acid (Greek) pantos-everywhere 

Pathogenesis (Greek) pathos-disease; genesisproducing 

Pellagra (ltalian)-rough skin 

Pepsin (Greek) pepsis-digestion 

Phagocytosis (Greek) phagein-to eat; kytos-cell;osis-condition 

Phobia (Greek) phobos-fear 

Polysaccharide (Greek) poly-many; saccharin - sugar 

Porphyrin (Greek) porphyra - purple colour 

Post-prandial (Latin}-after food 

Prokaryotes (Greek) pro-before; karyon-nucleus 

Proteins (Greek) proteios-holding first place 

Rickets (Old English) wrickken-to twist 

Serum (Latin}-whey 

Sphingosine (Greek) sphingein-to bind tight 

Steatorrhea (Greek) stear-fat; rheein-to flow 

Stereoisomerism (Greek) stero-space 

Sterol (Greek) steros-solid; ol- alcohol 

Thalassemia (Greek) thalassa-sea 

Thermodynamics (Greek) therme-heat; dynamics-power 

Thermogenesis (Greek) therme-heat; genesis-production 

Thrombosis (Greek) thrombos-clot; osis-condition 

Thylakoid (Greek) thylakos-a sac or pouch 

Tocopherol (Greek) tokos-child birth; pheros-to bear; ol-alcohol 

Trans (Latin) across Tumor (Latin) swelling 

Vitamin (coined inappropriately in 1906) (Latin) vita-fife; amine 

Xanthoma (Greek) xanthos-yellow 

Xenobiotics (Greek) xenos-strange 

Zwitterion (German) zwitter-hybrid.

👉See Also: 

     A table of Genetic Codes 

   Feed additives are extra nutrition for livestock. Check out details about feed additives. 

3. Tissue Engineering - A Brief Overview On Stem Cell Technology
   Tissue Engineering - a subdomain of regenerative medicine is using stem cell technology. In this article, learn about future trends of tissue engineering applications.  

    A brief introduction about biopolymers, history and uses.

    Learn how nanotechnology is shaping our future.

    The article gives a thorough understanding of Enzyme Catalysis and its mechanism of working. 

Monday, 14 June 2021

Operating Systems (Short Questions and Answers)(#mcanotes)(#csenotes)(#bcanotes)#ipumusings

Operating Systems
(Short Questions and Answers)

Operating Systems (Short Questions and Answers)(#mcanotes)(#csenotes)(#bcanotes)#ipumusings

Q1: Define Operating System?

Answer: An Operating System is a program that controls the execution of application programs and acts as an interface between a user and computer hardware.

Q2: What is the difference between uniprocessor, multiprocessor and symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)?

Answer: Uniprocessor systems have a single processor while multiprocessor systems contain two or more processors that share resources like physical memory and peripheral devices. Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) system have processors acting peers and run independently.

Q3: What are clustered systems?

Answer: Multiprocessor systems connected by a local area network.

Friday, 11 June 2021

Computer Networks - MCQs (#ComputerNetworks)(#ipumusings)(#eduvictors)

Computer Networks - MCQs

Computer Networks - MCQs (#ComputerNetworks)(#ipumusings)(#eduvictors)

Q1:Two or more computers connected close together in a local area e.g. building or office is called?

(a) WAN

(b) LAN

(c) The Internet

(d) Virtual Network Answer 

Q2: A computer network is ___ connected together.

(a) One computer 

(b) Two or more 

(c) Three or more 

(d) Four or more

Saturday, 1 May 2021

BIOFUEL: BIOFUEL PROJECTION (India vs Global) #biochemistry #biofuel #chemistry #ipumusings



BIOFUEL: BIOFUEL PROJECTION (India vs Global) #biochemistry #biofuel #chemistry #ipumusings

What do you mean by biofuel projection?

Biofuel projection is an estimate or forecast of a future situation based on a study of present trends.

It have a great chance in India to rise and thrive as well as globally.

Various scenarios have resulted in high estimates of biofuel in the future energy system. The availability of the resources is an important factor if high shares of biofuel penetrate the electricity, heat or liquid fuel market.

Tuesday, 20 April 2021

WASTEWATER TREATMENT (#appliedchemistry)(#environmentalegineering)(#wastewater)(#ipumusings)(#biotechnology)


WASTEWATER TREATMENT (#appliedchemistry)(#environmentalegineering)(#wastewater)(#ipumusings)(#biotechnology)


India is a developing nation and one of the world’s fastest economies. However, despite its active growth as it urbanizes, its water forms are becoming toxic. According to a report, around 70% of surface water in India is inadequate for use. Almost every day, 40 million litres of wastewater contaminates the water bodies without being treated properly. In some areas, rivers and lakes are so polluted that they are catching fire. For example, in 2015, Bellandur Lake in Bangalore caught fire and carried ash onto structures up to 9.6 kilometres away. A report says that without necessary action, water conditions will continue to worsen, affecting human health, majorly decreasing food production and, consequently, delaying economic progress. [1] [2]

And therefore Wastewater Treatment is the prime solution to the above-mentioned problems. Let’s learn how it is effective.

Monday, 5 April 2021

AN INTRODUCTION TO CARDIAC TISSUE ENGINEERING (#biochemistry)(#tissueengineering)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#heartcelltransplant)


Author: Mridula Vats

AN INTRODUCTION TO CARDIAC TISSUE ENGINEERING (#biochemistry)(#tissueengineering)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#heartcelltransplant)

Image Credits: Chadonihi, pixabay


Heart failure is the favored reason behind death in industrial countries. myocardial infarct usually results in fibrotic scar formation and for good impaired internal organ function as a result of, when a huge cell loss thanks to ischemia, the heart muscle tissue lacks the intrinsic regenerative capability. In end-stage heart failure, heart transplantation is the last treatment option with good long-term benefits. Owing to the lack of organ donors and conditions associated with immune suppressive treatments, however, scientists and surgeons are continuously trying to find new strategies to regenerate the injured heart tissue. In general, scaffold materials such as gelatin, collagen, alginate, or synthetic polymers and cardiac cells are used. The problem is that adult heart muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, cannot divide to replace abraded cells. Thus, despite a restricted population of resident cardiac stem cells, the heart cannot repair itself by any native processes. Instead, scar tissue develops over the damaged part of myocardium. Such scar tissue keeps the organ intact but it cannot contract. The perfect clinical intervention would either avoid such scar formation or just replace the scar tissue with functioning cardiac muscle tissue. In the first approach to such therapy, investigators used injections of new cells into damaged areas of cardiac tissue.

Wednesday, 24 March 2021

Common Chemical Compounds – Names and Formulas (#chemistry)(#biochemistry)(#ipumusings)

 Common Chemical Compounds – Names and Formulas 

(General Science)

Common Chemical Compounds – Names and Formulas (General Science)(#chemistry)(#compete4exams)

The list of all the important Names and Formulas of Common Chemical Compounds is given here: weblink

Tuesday, 23 March 2021

Good Laboratory Practices and Disinfection/Sterilisation (#labsafety)(#biosafety)(#biochemistry)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)

Good Laboratory Practices and Disinfection/Sterilisation

Good Laboratory Practices and Disinfection/Sterilisation (#labsafety)(#biosafety)(#biochemistry)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)

Credits: FotoshopTofs (pixabay)

Author: Sweta Kumari

Good Laboratory Practices

In order to avoid harm to human, animals and nature by human error or poor laboratory technique or misuse of laboratory equipment these are some standard good practices that we can keep in mind while handling infectious biological agents: 

Use of pipettes and pipetting aids

Pipetting by mouth is not good practice it must be prohibited. A discard container should be kept inside the biological safety cabinet not outside, so the risk of infection could be minimised. If the pipette is contaminated then, it should be kept in a suitable disinfectant for certain periods of time.

Infectious material should not be mixed.

Reducing the dispersal of infectious materials

There should be precautions to ensure that there is no aerosol creation therefore care should be taken when drying sputum samples. The workspace must be decontaminated with suitable disinfectant at the end of each work done.

Use of biological safety cabinet

Before using the cabinets, it is better to check that it is working properly. Paperwork should not be placed inside the biological safety cabinet. There should be a minimum crowd behind the operator. The fan in the cabinet should be open at least for five minutes before and after use.

Avoiding the infectious material to enter through the route of ingestion and direct contact

Large particles during the microbiological manipulation settle on the surface of the bench and also on the hand of the operator therefore disposal gloves should be worn. The worker should not touch their eye, nose and face. Food and drink should not store in a laboratory.

Care and use of the refrigerator and freezer, etc.

All the containers should be kept with proper labelling includes the scientific name of content, the date on which the container is stored and there should be the name of the individual too who stored it. If there is an unlabelled container that should be discarded after autoclave.

Use of centrifuges

Tubes or specimen containers should be securely capped for centrifugation. Buckets must be loaded in paired weight in order to balance correctly. Distilled water or alcohol (ethanol 70%) should be used to balance the empty buckets, after use bucket should be stored in an inverted position to drain off the balancing fluid used.

Avoiding injection of infection agents

If possible then glass wear should be replaced with plastic wear because there may be inoculation from the broken or chipped glass.

Good Laboratory Practices and Disinfection/Sterilisation (#labsafety)(#biosafety)(#biochemistry)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)

Disinfection: A process by which chemical or mixture of the chemical that kills the microorganisms not necessarily spores. This can be applied to an inanimate surface or object.

Sterilisation: A process by which all class or microorganisms and spores kills or removed.

Cleaning of laboratory materials

Cleaning refers to the removal of dirt, soil and organic matter that can shield microorganisms and may interfere when we apply decontaminants (disinfectants chemical germicides) for the killing of m Therefore precleaning is essential to achieve proper sterilisation and disinfection.

Chemical Germicides:

Commonly used class of germicides is listed below:

Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite - NaOCl)

Sodium dichloroisocyanurate(NaDCC)


Hydrogen peroxide and peracids

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2)

Iodine and iodophors



Quaternary ammonium compounds

Hydrogen peroxide and peracids

Phenolic compounds

Formaldehyde (HCHO)

Hand washing/hand - decontamination

While handling biohazardous material wear gloves and wash hands before leaving the laboratory after work. Use of germicidal based soap is recommended but usually, ordinary soap and water are also sufficient to decontaminate. If proper hand washing is not available use alcohol-based hand rubs.

Heat disinfection and sterilisation

A physical agent heat is most commonly used for decontamination of pathogenic organisms. Dry heat is used to process laboratory wear it is totally not corrosive at the temperature of 160 degrees Celsius or higher for two to four hours.


The quality of steam used is saturated steam under pressure. These are some following cycles:

1. 3 min holding time at 134 °C

2. 10 min holding time at 126 °C

3. 15 min holding time at 121 °C

4. 25 min holding time at 115 °C.


The operation should be assigned to the trained individual. There should be a regular inspection by qualified personnel to check the chamber, door seals and all gauges and controls. The operator must wear suitable gloves while opening the autoclave. If the drain screen filter of the chamber is available then it should be cleaned up daily. There are chances that the relief valves of the pressure cooker autoclave may block due to paper etc in load therefore care should be taken to ensure that this does not happen.


Laboratory biosafety manual. (2004). weblink

Handbook of Chemical Health and Safety (ACS Handbooks)

About The Author:

Sweta Kumari doing her graduation from the University School Of Chemical Technology, GGSIPU. She wants to pursue her research in bio-safety and environmental health.

👉See Also:

Biohazards: Understanding Biological Behaviour and Related Hazard and Biodefense Strategies

BioChemistry - Standard Genetic Code

Understanding Safety Colours and Signs Standards in India

Risk groups and Biosafety Levels - An Overview - What Every Biochemist Must Know!

Monday, 15 March 2021

UNDERSTANDING FOOD SAFETY (FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY) #biotechnology #foodsafety #ipumusings #biochemistry


UNDERSTANDING FOOD SAFETY (FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY) #biotechnology #foodsafety #ipumusings #biochemistry


Food is the basic requirement for humans, to which they cannot be denied. Food can become contaminated at any stage of processing, production, processing and storage. Germs can spread from unclean surfaces to food and hence contaminating the food and causing health problems to the food consumer and sometimes it can even be fatal. For the assurance of the protection of food from contaminants, we need to adopt some measures such as food safety.


To be concise, food safety can be termed as the preventive measures taken to protect the food from contaminating substances to give a contamination-free consumption to the food consumers. It relies on the joint efforts of everyone involved from food processing to food packaging to food storage that is involved in the food supply chain. A food is considered to be safe only when it has not lost any of its nutritional value, it is physically, chemically, microbiologically clean.