Thursday, 25 February 2021

Dark Fermentation - The Best Bioprocess for Biohydrogen Production (#biochemistry)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#biohydrogen)

Dark Fermentation - The Best Bioprocess for Biohydrogen Production

Dark Fermentation - The Best Bioprocess for Biohydrogen Production (#biochemistry)(#biotechnology)(#ipumusings)(#biohydrogen)

Author: Pavitra Khurana

Hydrogen is one of the promising renewable, clean fuel for the future. The reason behind this claim is due to it's higher energy content(two times more) per kg as compared to gasoline, zero carbon emissions. There are many Thermochemical processes by which hydrogen can be produced but all of these are highly energy intensive and uses Fossil fuel as the primary source for its production, hence are not the solutions. Instead, the biological processes especially the Dark Fermentation method can become the game changer as it can use organic waste from various sources and convert it into Biohydrogen along with providing various industrially important by-products such as ethanol, acetic acid, butyric acid, etc.

Sunday, 21 February 2021

Role of Nanobiotechnology in Biopharmaceuticals (#biotechnology)(#nanotechnology)(#biochemistry)(#pharmacy)(#ipumusings)

Role of Nanobiotechnology in Biopharmaceuticals

Role of Nanobiotechnology in Biopharmaceuticals (#biotechnology)(#nanotechnology)(#biochemistry)(#pharmacy)(#ipumusings)


Abstract:

Nanomedicine with its capacity to perform at the nanoscale has extraordinary focal points over ordinary pharmaceuticals. The customary medications just rotate around the essential microscopic organisms that have been clinically affirmed. Nanomedicine can not exclusively be an aid for rising organizations and exploration offices yet in addition advantageous for the administration bodies to diminish the use of the medications.

Friday, 19 February 2021

KIDNEY TISSUE ENGINEERING (#biochemistry)(#tissueengineering)(#ipumusings)(#bioartificialglomerulus)

KIDNEY TISSUE ENGINEERING 

Author: Mridula Vats

KIDNEY TISSUE ENGINEERING (#biochemistry)(#tissueengineering)(#ipumusings)(#bioartificialglomerulus)


ABSTRACT

The alternatives to replace kidney functions in humans include dialysis and allotransplantation. Transplantation of human kidneys is limited by the availability of donors. During the past few decades, many different approaches have been applied to tissue engineering the kidney. The goals include the recapitulation of renal filtration, resorptive and secretory functions, replacement of endocrine and metabolic activities. Patients with chronic kidney disease with deteriorated renal function are treated by dialysis or undergo surgical intervention for renal transplantation to reduce the risk of mortality. Dialysis is the major treatment modality for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but it has some limitations in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost.

Keywords: Human kidney, Cell-based strategies, Organ based strategies, Development of the bioartificial glomerulus.

Wednesday, 17 February 2021

HRM Role and Occupational Health and Safety - BBA/MBA/LLB Study Notes (#HumanResources)#BBANotes #mbaNotes #OccupationalSafety #ipumusings

HRM Role and Occupational Health and Safety

Subject: Human Resource Management

HRM Role and Occupational Health and Safety - BBA/MBA/LLB Study Notes (#HumanResources)#BBANotes #mbaNotes #OccupationalSafety #ipumusings


On Sep 24, 2008, the sacked workers of Italian MNC, Graziano barged into the India Unit at Greater Noida (Uttar Pradesh) and the CEO was beaten to death. (Source: Times Of India)

In May 2009, workers at Mahindra’s Nashik plant protested over the suspension of a union leader. Although the strike was called off after 48 hours; however, it led to production loss of Rs 325 crore.

From 2014 to 2017, 8,004 such incidents occurred in Indian workplaces killing 6,368 employees. Most such incidents took place in Delhi, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. (Source: The Hindu)

Thousands of employees throughout the world lose their fingers, eyes, limbs, and their lives, every day due to occupational hazards, industry violence and accidents. 

Sunday, 14 February 2021

KINETICS OF SURFACE REACTIONS (#chemicalkinetics)(#chemicalengineering)(#ipumusings)(#physicalchemistry)

KINETICS OF SURFACE REACTIONS

KINETICS OF SURFACE REACTIONS (#chemicalkinetics)(#chemicalengineering)(#ipumusings)(#physicalchemistry)


Introduction

Surface reaction plays a vital role in the catalysis mechanism. Especially in heterogeneous catalysis, various elementary steps occur at the surface of the crystal, and kinetics of the reactions depend on surface phenomena such as adsorption, forming of intermediates and products, and desorption.


On account of surface compositions and structure, the catalyst shows properties of enhancing the rate of the reaction. Langmuir gave a theory of heterogeneous catalysis in which he stated that reactants are chemisorbed through the pores of the catalyst crystal. The assumptions of the Langmuir and Hinshelwood model gives the kinetics of the catalyzed reactions.

Saturday, 13 February 2021

JAVASCRIPT: AN INTRODUCTION (Chapter1) (#BCANotes)(#MCANotes)(#JSTutorial)(#ipumusings)(#CSENotes)

JAVASCRIPT: AN INTRODUCTION




CHAPTER 1:

HOW WEBSITES USED TO WORK WHEN THERE WAS NO JAVASCRIPT? IS JAVASCRIPT NECESSARY?

-What used to happen earlier was, let's take an example of a 3-Step Registration Form, which usually sites implement, especially the bank sites, for taking your details. You started filling your form. You entered your FirstName, MiddleName, LastName, then your username, then your email, then your Password, Home Address, Permanent Address, Bank Account Number, Aadhar Card Number, Date Of Birth, Profession, Mother's Name, Father's Name, and so much further. By now, you are correlating with how long this form is. Finally, you filled in all the details to the best of your knowledge and clicked the submit button. 

Tuesday, 9 February 2021

Risk groups and Biosafety Levels - An Overview - What Every Biochemist Must Know! (#biosafety)(#biorisklevels)(#biochemistry)(#ipumusings)

Risk groups and BioSafety Levels - An Overview - What Every Biochemist Must Know!


Risk groups and Biosafety Levels - An Overview - What Every Biochemist Must Know! (#biosafety)(#biorisklevels)(#biochemistry)(#ipumusings)


Author: Sweta Kumari

Risk Groups

Pathogens that cause infectious disease in human or animals are called as risk groups. The consideration used for biological risk assessment to determine appropriate biosafety level in which the procedure can be conducted is primarily infectious biological agents. Another consideration is the ability of microorganisms to cause diseases in human or animals, activities performed in the laboratory, training and health of laboratory worker, etc. microorganisms are classified into four risk groups:


Risk Group 1(RG-1): 

Microorganisms are not associated with disease in healthy adult humans or animals. (no or low individual and community risk) e.g: E.coli K-12, lactobacilli

Sunday, 7 February 2021

Software Engineering - Black Box Testing vs White Box Testing (#BCANotes)(#MCANotes)(#ComputerScienceNotes)#ipumusings

Software Engineering - Black Box Testing vs White Box Testing 

Software Engineering - Black Box Testing vs White Box Testing (#BCANotes)(#MCANotes)(#ComputerScienceNotes)#ipumusings


In general, it is somewhat impractical, to find all the errors in a program. To combat the challenges associated with testing economics, we need to adopt some testing strategies. Two of the most commonly used test strategies are black-box testing and white-box testing.


Black box testing is the Software testing method which is used to test the software without knowing the internal structure of code or program.In this approach, test data are derived solely from the specifications (i.e., without taking advantage of knowledge of the internal structure of the program). White box testing is the software testing method in which internal structure is being known to tester who is going to test the software.This strategy derives test data from an examination of the program’s logic.

Here is a PDF listing important differences between the two test strategies:

Friday, 5 February 2021

APPLICATIONS OF BIOPOLYMERS (#biopolymers)(#ipumisngs)(#biochemistry)(#biotechnology)

APPLICATIONS OF BIOPOLYMERS 

APPLICATION OF BIOPOLYMERS (#biopolymers)(#ipumisngs)(#biochemistry)(#biotechnology)

Biopolymers, due to its biocompatible and biodegradable nature, can be used to improve the performances of many biologically active molecules in a product. They can likewise be adjusted to suite different potential applications which include the following.

Tuesday, 2 February 2021

Nanotechnology: Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles (#nanotechnology)(#biochemistry)(#ipumusings)

Nanotechnology: Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

Nanotechnology: Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles (#nanotechnology)(#biochemistry)(#ipumusings)
image credits: Walterdenkens, wikimedia


Author
: Sanjana Singh

INTRODUCTION

Nanoparticles are really tiny particles with the dimension ranging from only 1nm to 100nm, where any nano-scale technology used to manipulate these particles for its application in real  world is known as Nanotechnology [1]. These particles have special and enhanced physical and chemical properties as compared to their bulk materials due to their large reactive and exposed surface area along with quantum-mechanical effect as a result of specific electronic structures. These particles have been widely used in many fields such as electronics, photochemical, biomedicine, chemistry, ware fare and environmental remediation [2][3].  Nanoparticles in addition have a promising future for fuel production from raw petroleum materials through higher chemical action and it’s uses in many bio-imaging and therapeutic functions [4].